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MVP Definition: Minimum Viable Product and Alternatives you May Consider

  • 7-8 min read
  • December 08, 2021
  • 👍 Rating — 4.7 (54 votes)

Building an MVP is a widely known practice that helped many entrepreneurs to save a lot of money and time on early stages of startup development. But what works for one doesn’t necessarily work for the others. And definitely without a clear understanding of MVP purpose you can lose more than win.

  1. MVP Definition
  2. Cases When MVP is Needed
  3. Successful Minimum Viable Product Examples
  4. Alternatives to MVP

What is a Minimum Viable Product (MVP)?
A brief overview.

Let’s start by defining the term MVP. Minimum Viable Product is a product with minimum features set used to collect the maximum amount of validated learning about customers with the least effort. Its main purpose is to gather insights, test your concept, and connect with the audience spending less time and money. 

A cost reduction is achieved by limiting the functionality of the product and constraining the number of features to few that satisfy the basic need of the audience.

Cases When MVP is Needed

Remember Simon Sinek’s Golden Circle framework? “People don’t buy what you do, they buy why you do it”

Simon Sinek’s Golden Circle framework

Why, How, and What – three questions your MVP should be built around. If your product is the answer to those questions than minimum viable product should test your answers.

If you have an idea but you don’t know whether customers will appreciate it – ask them and do a marketing research! That way you’ll get the answers to the “Why question”.

Next, start development of an MVP in order to get an answer to the “How question”. You need to test whether it is possible and profitable to build and maintain such product. It may occur too pricey or too complex.

Have an awesome idea of software development? Want to start creating an MVP?

Congratulations! After your MVP is ready you can pitch it to VC funds, private investors, and users.

By the way. Software minimum viable product has some additional advantages. It is much leaner and flexible, so it takes less time and resources in order to adjust product according to data gathered during research. Meaning you will spend less money in order to tweak and reshape your software MVP or mobile app prototype.

Maybe This Is Not the MVP You Are Looking for?

MVP You Are Looking for

With the boom of startups, the MVP gained a sacred must-have image. Nevertheless, one should understand that MVP is not a magic pill that solves all troubles. There is no MVP business! Here’s what David Schwartz, Senior Director of Product Management of Wix (One of the biggest website development platforms to date) said about MVP:

“People are mistaken about what MVP is. MVP is not a product you’re taking out there. The product you’re taking out there is called the First Phase. MVP is an experiment!”

And we had several cases when clients insisted on development of MVP while all they were needed is an experiment or a deep market research. Moreover, there are also many reasons why you may dump MVP in your business and make a full-bodied product form start.

  • MVP is not a profitable product you can sell.
  • You can’t test all your assumptions with MVP.
  • MVP in not free. It does need time and money to develop as well as the product.

And the last but not least: MVP won’t help you to cross the Chasm!

types of clients who need MVP

Most viable products can live by itself for some time. They are acceptable and functional so innovators and even early adopters can are happy with it.

But there is time to get to the mass market in order to earn real revenues. To get there you’ll need to cross that Chasm. This is where most projects from Kickstarter end up. They get funded by innovators, praised by early adopters and then die without winning the hearts and minds of the majority.

Here’s a list of successful minimum viable product examples and then unsuccessful products that seemed to conquer the market but failed to gain customers trust:

  • BETAMAX lost to VHS.
  • Microsoft Zune lost to iPod.
  • Myspace lost to Facebook.
  • HP’s Touchpad lost to iPad.
  • Pebble was eventually purchased by Fitbit.

That’s what Chasm does to great, innovative products.

One of the reasons Chasm happens is because entrepreneurs can’t step back and reshape their MVPs into a Mass-Market product. Indeed, making so may be really challenging, even after you struggled so much to make MVP.

Don't know whether to start a software development with an MVP or no?

First of all, you should preserve the core innovation that was so popular among early adopter. Second, and it may be controversial, you should mask that innovation into more trivial shape. At this point, you may be criticized by innovators and those customers you’ve already acquired, but this is how you find a way to the heart of a grand audience.

Definitely, from such point of view, developing a full-fledged minimum viable product can be a huge waste of time and money. And the profitability of investing into MVP is reduced proportionally to the size of the innovator’s community you are targeting with the product.

Don’t go with MVP if innovators and early adopters of your targeted audience won’t drive to your product enough attention and investments that are needed to develop a complete product.

Alternatives to MVP

Riskiest Assumption Test

Riskiest Assumption Test
This approach address several uncertainties related to MVP. For instance, how “minimal” your minimal viable product should be? What hypothesis should it test? Should it explore only one assumption or all of them?

The risk assumption test has a single answer to all these questions: Test the biggest uncertainty you have. Meaning you don’t want to build more than needed to test the largest unknown.

Of course, along with our work, we had customers that wanted to test several theories or couldn’t decide which one to choose. We’ve asked them about the main assumptions behind them. Find a core unknown that can ruin your project and test it!

Minimum Loveable Product

Minimum Loveable Product

MLP suggests entrepreneurs develop a product that aims at customer satisfaction of a small targeted audience. That way you will save money on added features that aim to the wider user group.

In addition, advocates of MLP site that minimal viable products usually built to prove entrepreneur’s business concept (processes, logistics, product structure), rather than audience interest. Such MVPs are fast, cheap and crappy, thus they fail to get users’ interest and die. Meanwhile, the idea behind business MVP could be great, it just lost behind the crappiness of the prototype.

We suggest you get familiar with Kano Model in order to avoid such mistake.

Kano Model of avoiding crappy and cheap products

Kano Model examines each product from customer satisfaction perspective. It classified customer preferences into five categories and suggests to keep in sight only those product features that leads maximize customer satisfaction.

  1. Must-be Quality. A functionality that is not new and taken for granted.
  2. One-dimensional Quality. The presence of these features results in the rise of customer satisfaction, the absence of those features decreases it.
  3. Attractive Quality. The most innovative set of features, that create WOW effect, but risk being misunderstood by users.
  4. Indifferent Quality. Features that not affect customer satisfaction. E.g. Programming Language or Framework used to develop an app.
  5. Reverse Quality. Over exaggerating these qualities result in loss of some customers. E.g. Oversimplification of the product may divert tech geeks. The complication may divert users with low tech savviness.

Focus on first two qualities if you’re building MVP for a unique product. Spend more efforts on second and third qualities if you’re entering a high competitive market.

MVP helps beginning entrepreneurs to test their product's idea with minimal resources. It allows to avoid bigger failures while checking the market needs. Another benefit from starting with MVP is the shortest time between product launch on the market and finding early adopters to build a user base and obtain valuable feedback.
Before starting an MVP development for your startup take into consideration the following steps: Define your target audience and their habits. Think big. You should know right from the start what features you’re going to add in the long run. Be innovative. Although your MVP is a limited version of your app, it should have unique trade proposal.
When we are talking about solutions, it is vital to plan user flows combined with end goals: Put down the jobs that the system helps people to do. Make a list of barriers every action includes. Think about how to overcome them. Write down the challenges and solutions into specs. Finally, rank functions by their importance.

As you can see there are many possibilities you may not need MVP at all. You can make deeper research and get to the development of a full-sized mobile app. Or you may want to save money on MVP and develop a light version of the product with the extension capabilities for later upgrades.

Taking into account all aforementioned we’d suggest you not to rush things forward with MVP development and sort things out first. The choice is upon you, and we’ll be glad to consult you and give prompt advice.

Contact Us and we’ll come up with the Optimal Solution Just for You!


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Alexandra Rostovtseva


Being a proficient leader with over 10 years of experience in Project and Product Management, Business Development and Sales, I have strong skills in Negotiations, Crisis, Client and Risk management. Being an outstanding communicator I’m also a good mentor and leader in the tech industry. Experience and expertise are the key foundations in my ability to provide deep insights into the industry and as result I’ve also been published or was a contributor to several tech and business articles.
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Comments (6)

Nov 15, 2021 at 5:39 PM

What a great article! The topic of the onboarding process is fully covered. Thank you!

Dina Kaplani
May 31, 2020 at 4:08 PM

Hi Tony,
This is so amazing!
I appreciate that you took a simple, How to article by explaining what Minimum viable product is? via clearing misconceptions about MVP. We too are on the same mission about use of MVP in UX designing.

Apr 15, 2020 at 5:47 PM

Thank you for this post, Tony!

As for me, I believe that the approach is a great idea to start a business before jumping to full-featured product development. The reasons are as follows:

* Clear focus
* Flexibility
* The opportunity to attract investors
* Fewer software errors
* Customers’ feedback

Besides, when developing an MVP you should follow the main principles:
1. Narrow focus
2. Users in mind
3. A slow, but promising start

I wanted to share with you our post and would appreciate your feedback.

Apr 17, 2018 at 9:48 PM

Thank you for this awesome information. MVP is a great way to quickly test out ideas, and drive innovation within the business. You are right that without a clear understanding of MVP purpose you can lose more than win.

Oct 20, 2017 at 6:03 PM

Read article, but how much does it cost to build an mvp?

Alex Pedchenko
Feb 26, 2019 at 5:31 PM

Thanks a lot for this useful post. I’ve found some details which I didn’t know.

I would like to add some information to your post.

The MVP concept is rather vague when used as a broader term because, on the one hand, the MVP technique is rather useful but, on the other hand, it requires judgmental thinking within minimum and maximum gradation.

There has been confusion, because some use MVP in the form of an experiment or as a landing page, while others build a fully-functioning product.

In general, the MVP should deliver the very essence of the product idea in the simplest form. Depending on the context, this form could differ, this means that MVP can differ per project and range from a demo video to the working software prototype.


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